Application Example: Production Of Textile Fibers

Application Example: Production Of Textile Fibers

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Application Example: Production Of Textile Fibers

Typically the production of manmade colored textile and carpet fibers involves the feeding of two or more components into a single screw extruder, where they are mixed and extruded as a filament. Filament pumps, nozzles and further processing equipment ensure the fibers have the correct form and thickness. The key concern of the manufacturer is that the color of the fiber is uniform and consistent, with no visible variations in color.

To ensure consistent color in the final product, resin/dye blending is increasingly performed gravimetrically by weight rather than by the less accurate volumetric approach. Blending by weight continually adjusts for variations in density of the components, providing consistent end products.

The thermoplastic filaments are produced with special gear pumps called spin pumps and heated spinneret die heads capable of extruding up to several hundred filaments simultaneously. Because the filament will be stretched to the desired dernier (thickness), it is especially important that the diameter of the extruded filaments do not vary. Uniform melt distribution and temperature are highly critical. The spin pumps provide the required smooth, constant melt flow, independent of small variations in the extruder rate.

After forming, the filaments drop vertically into a continuous cooling tower where the strands solidify under forced air. Depending on the application, the filaments then move on to one or more cycles of stretching. Here the filaments are routed through a set of godets whose speed differentials are closely controlled to produce the specified strength and dernier.

Where a texturized filament or strand of filament is desired, the product may be passed through a texturizing unit before or after spinning. A typical texturizing unit uses high-pressure compressed air to form the filament or strand. The filaments then pass to a bobbin winder either as individual filaments or spun strands. At that stage the product is ready for sale or further processing.

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Application Example: Production Of Textile Fibers